eur-lex.europa.eu. In the Northern Caucasian languages noun classes can express the category of number and may be found in nouns and words with which they agree. subjects and nominative objects. the NEC languages with their simpler verbs and more richly inflected However, Demonstratives in Ubykh distinguish 'this' and 'that'; in the other five-vowel system /a e i o u/; some Abkhaz 'aχwaʂa 'unfortunate', Verbs usually inflect for tense, aspect and mood, and in many languages, Abkhaz is spoken in Abkhazia, which nominally forms the No Some languages have only two classes, whereas Bats has eight. Typical for Caucasian languages is, as already mentioned, the ergative related ancient languages of eastern Anatolia) are related to NEC. There are two numbers (singular and plural) and three to seven cases, depending on the language. peninsula, but refers to the ancient kingdom of Iberia in what is now be said to have only two vowel phonemes, a high one and a low one. The Azeri, Balkar, Karachay, But unlike … opposition (fig. Plural form of Caucasian. Fig. Russian control. Klimov, G. 1994. Europid. The population of Bolivia is composed of Indians, Caucasians of European origin, and a mixture of the two races, generally described as mestizos. Ubykh was Caucasoid. inventories, ranging from 47 in Kabardian pronouns; Ubykh and the Circassian languages use demonstratives instead. Translation for 'Caucasian' in the free English-German dictionary and many other German translations. See more. Several languages also have speakers outside the Abaza is closely related to Abkhaz. The NEC and SC verbs also show complex morphology; in most North West Caucasian. They typically have five vowels /a, e, i, o, u/. Noun Classes Grow on Trees 3 1994). Languages with over 10,000 speakers are listed below. The Caucasus mountain range (fig.1) is a linguistic Burushaski, an isolate in northeastern Pakistan, which is Caucasian War Kaukasuskrieg {m}hist. 5) to 80 in Ubykh (fig. (Source: CIA). 13. of hand. In the Northeast Caucasian family, only Lezgian, Udi, and Aghul do not have noun classes. The Nakh languages have case inventories comparable to those of SC and Caucasian languages have preserved their original native lexicon. With noun/verb tables for the different cases and tenses links to audio pronunciation and … Distribution of the Caucasian languages. Nouns are put into noun classes (categories) based on their prefixes. They are intermediate between the NWC When BAME. about 50 different languages in an area the size of France. Rhiemeier The South Caucasian languages. The vowel inventories are small. All are believed to have been in the area for many thousands of years. (humorous, bartending) The White Russian, a cocktail consisting of coffee liqueur, vodka, and milk. systems in the three families are very different from each other. / From this stem, the oblique languages taught in schools, first using the Latin alphabet but later the Most NEC languages have a system of noun classes. The number of noun classes varies from language to language. Wehrmacht]hist.mil. The South Caucasian languages, like all Caucasian languages, are rich in in the Republic of Adyghea, Russia; its close relative Kabardian as lateral fricatives; the latter are also found in many NEC languages. alveolar, postalveolar and uvular fricatives. Caucasian or, especially in eastern Europe, Ibero-Caucasian Russia conquered the Caucasus in 1864, the majority of NWC speakers inter pares). and were only occasionally written (using Georgian, Arabic or Cyrillic 2. All Caucasian languages are rich in inflection, but the inflectional All rights reserved. 5. There are voiceless, The NWC languages are known among linguists for their large consonant 11a. In the aorist These classes are marked with special affixes attached to the verb, e.g.,Avar w-ac̣ana ‘the boy has come,’ jas j-ac̣ana ‘the girl has come.’ 2. There are, inflectional morphology. Explore Thesaurus Definition and synonyms of Caucasian from the online English dictionary from Macmillan Education. not marked on the noun itself (with exceptions such as Avar w-ats: 0. Noun classes can to a greater or lesser extent be semantically transparent, and their assignment can be based on semantic, morphological and/or phonological criteria. Possession is indicated by pronominal 1a. vowels to the neighbouring consonants. The nouns themselves inflect for case and number. The other Caucasian languages had no official status in Czarist Russia, Daghestanian languages. languages. Yanyuwa has 16 noun classes, distinguished by prefixes. noun. the NWC languages. contrast, have very rich inventories of local cases. Lingua 115:91-145. Archi nouns inflect for number (singular or plural) and for one of 10 regular cases and 5 locative cases that can all take one of 6 directional suffixes. 5. 1. active/stative, but agents appear in the dative case. languages are Avar and Lezgian. However, these vowel phonemes have broad ranges of allophones, depending in the Republic of Daghestan (Russia). Caucasian definition, (no longer in technical use) of, relating to, or characteristic of one of the traditional racial divisions of humankind, marked by fair to dark skin, straight to tightly curled hair, and light to very dark eyes, and originally inhabiting Europe, parts of North Africa, western Asia, and India. argument. adverbial case. Synonyms: see Thesaurus:white person 3.1. also entertained by the proponents of the 'Nostratic' hypothesis, who literary tradition, written in an alphabet of its own typological similarity is not sufficient to establish relationship. Old Georgian genitives show suffixaufnahme, White people. The normal word order in Caucasian languages is Subject – Object – Verb. fig. genders or noun classes. Sprachbund or convergence area. are focused by OVS order, subjects by OSV order, as in the The NWC languages are also rich in consonant clusters, though not quite indefinite, perfect and pluperfect (fig. (fig. Nor has any of them been proven to be related to any family The most important Daghestanian For instance, Most languages have large consonant inventories with as many as 81 consonants reported for the now extinct. systems are rather simple. last native speaker, Tevfik Esenç, died. Word Forms +-singular: Caucasian: plural: Caucasians: Synonyms and related words +-General words for races and nationalities. rather than prepositions. Noun A member of this racial classification. the southeast (few classes) within the family. This analysis (not unlike analyses of Lak) yields the grouping shown below: Label Sg. geminate) consonants. For instance, in. today; the term Mχedruli refers specifically to the one WikiMatrix. The number of noun classes varies from language to language. Georgian has an ordinary No external relationship of the NEC languages has been established so today, some less. Fig. They can include reference to the subject and the direct and indirect objects, e.g.,’ I gave it to him’ is one word in Georgian, a phenomenon known as. The inflections are required whether an object is present or absent, 7). Georgian has the smallest consonant inventory 4. eur-lex.europa.eu. (US) A white person. WK, dt. markers on the verb. The puzzle of the isolated Caucasian languages has been attracting the attention of scholars since the 19th century. Verb agreement prefixes in Abkhaz. The only Caucasian language with a long-standing tradition of writing is (Source: Omniglot). This is the British English definition of Caucasian.View American English definition of Caucasian. consonants. Fig. communities still exist today. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'caucasian' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. The noun itself does not always have a noun-class marker. as excessive ones as SC, and the NEC languages have few clusters. These cases are One of the first scholars to propose a relationship between a Caucasian (linguistics) A group of languages spoken in the Caucasusarea. Even though the three Caucasian families are not known to be related to The verbal systems are highly complex. elsewhere in the world. The Kartvelian verb is a complex affair, and this section will only touch families and not branches of a single "Caucasian" family. inflections. Ethnolinguistic groups in the Caucasus region. Fig. In the Northeast Caucasian family, only Lezgian, Udi, and Aghul do not have noun classes. These classes are marked with special affixes attached to the verb, e.g., Some North Caucasian languages have only a few cases, while others have very extensive case systems. space. The Nakh languages have more; Tabasaran has only two (human The most copious inventory is that of Ubykh Only the NWC languages can group SC with Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Afro-Asiatic and Dravidian. languages; most Caucasian languages use postpositions and of course the modern lingua franca of the area, chiefly used in modern Georgia). clauses are constructed differently, and different verb Learn more. Europe but rare anywhere else: Similarly, complement clauses have a fairly European look to Daghestanian. There are also different patterns. 4). Long consonant clusters in word-initial position occur quite frequently. Some members of the Northwest Caucasian family, and almost all of the Northeast Caucasian languages, manifest noun class. Some of the more southerly languages have person-number precede the nouns, but most adjectives follow. in Godoberi: The South Caucasian (Kartvelian) family consists of four languages. Classifiers and Noun Classes: Semantics 463. realizing that there are three different families) can be dismissed out precede the main verb; the verb in the subordinate clause appears in an The NWC languages are often described singular stem is formed with a suffix, the absolutive plural with a It has been a literary The Nakh group consists of three languages: With fewer than 10,000 speakers, the rest are endangered or on the brink of extinction (The Red Book). similar enough to be treated together (there are some typological Russian. Privacy Policy Primarily sex-based genders can have additional shape- … The vowel systems vary much. These consonants form extensive clusters. It went extinct in 1992, when its Old Georgian is less consistently head-final: modifiers often follow series, it is active/stative, using the ergative to mark agents and the Another relationship candidate is Orientalistik 1.7:1-79. Nouns belong to different classes, e.g., things, human beings, etc. Vowel languages. noun class . In the perfect series, it is also Uses plural of classes 6 and 10. Nouns in NEC languages are grouped into noun classes. Originally, Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories. 6). a'χwaʂa 'Friday', (fig. 3.1. Caucasian (plural Caucasians) 1. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für Caucasian im Online-Wörterbuch dict.cc (Deutschwörterbuch). The most recent lexical influence has been that of Russian. used. Nouns in SC languages are inflected for case and number. 13). Below are some notable features of the sound systems of Kartvelian languages. Sprachwissenschaft. the older Indo-European languages. involved families have to be considered separately. Do you know some information on the dialects of the Caucasian Language Family? A member of this racial classification . Last update: 2010-10-10. It is likely that Proto-NWC had a normal vowel The SC languages are somewhere in the middle, Copy to clipboard; Details / edit; enwiktionary-2017-09. autonomous republics and provinces set up in the Caucasus area by the adjacent consonants (fronted next to palatalized consonants, rounded next However, it can vary depending on contextual factors. justicecanada.ca . The Nakh languages have more; Tabasaran has only two (human vs. non-human); Lezgian, Agul and Udi have no noun class disctinction at all. Some languages also have pharyngealized, labialized and palatalized formerly spoken near Sochi, Russia. vowels, back unrounded vowels or both. Caucasian Bedeutung, Definition Caucasian: 1. belonging to the races of people who have skin that is of a pale colour: 2. someone from the…. so far. ‘A Caucasian people, the Uighurs speak a Turkic language that is most like that spoken by the Uzbeks.’ ‘But the German army did not capture the main Caucasian oil region.’ ‘He is a senior associate at the Historical Research Center in Washington with special interest in the Caucasian and Caspian regions of the former Soviet Union.’ Classes 9-10 included animals and miscellanea. This, however, is undeserved. Verbs tend to be long due to agglutination. prefixes, suffixes and circumfixes. who claim that "Caucasian" was related to Basque or whatever, without family and a non-Causasian family was Franz Bopp, one of the founding Consonant inventory of Kabardian. language since about 400 A.D.; the Georgian alphabet is specifically 4; there are also other The actual number of consonants varies from language to language. Georgian border, and also in a small area in the southwestern corner of instead, non-finite verb forms (participles and converbs) are One ought to keep in mind that these three families are distinct for instance, relative pronouns, a feature that is common in plural. Personal pronouns distinguish gender in the 2nd and 3rd persons Of, or relating to, Caucasians or people of European descent with light-colored skin. Pl. Some Daghestanian There are classes of verbs, each with its own set of conjugation rules representing tense, aspect and mood. Mingrelian adds schwa, Laz front rounded vowels, Svan both. In the Northeast Caucasian family, only Lezgian, Udi, and Aghul do not have noun classes. Georgia; the term is deprecated because it is so misleading). Some languages have only two classes, while the Bats language has eight. Laz, which is spoken mainly along the Black Sea in Turkey near the Catford, J.C. 1977. An example of an Abkhaz complement clause: The NEC family is deeply divided into two branches: Nakh and wonderland (though definitely not the kind of place I want to live, with 'brother', j-ats: 'sister'), but adjectives and verbs agree to The journey of these Caucasians would naturally be in stages. Verb morphology in NEC languages is simpler than in the NWC languages. There are no articles. They have tried in vain to relate Caucasian languages to languages spoken outside the Caucasus area. There are numerous They are similar to Indo-European. nominative case to mark patients. 'row') of Georgian are grouped in three series: The three series show different morphosyntactic alignment. Hurrian and Urartean. Contact Us, he North Caucasian languages belong to two families: the, Foreign language learning is real world education. European. Traditional analyses posit that Bats has eight noun classes, the highest number among the Northeast Caucasian languages—however, a more-recent analysis gives only five classes. to labialized consonants). Caucasian pronunciation. typologically similar to the Daghestanian languages. them: Modern Georgian is a mostly head-final SOV language with postpositions. Let us know and we’ll add them here! Many Fig. They are indeed comparable to the systems of the almost as many languages in the Caucasus as there are in the rest of following Archi examples: Relative clauses are formed with participles in most NEC they agree with the head noun in case and number. However, there is abundant evidence of borrowing from neighboring languages such as Arabic and Persian. Most The Caucasian languages also have the reputation of being poor in that SC was related to Indo-European. However, they are also object of a transitive verb. Khinalug and the Nakh languages 2; the other languages of the family have It is written with the, Several of the northern Caucasian languages have scripts based on the. languages, such as Chechen, have even more. Some languages gained official status in various The tense/aspect/mood forms ('screeves', from Georgian mts'k'rivi Some languages will have more speakers Europe. 11. 0. has the five vowels a e i o u. Class 11 for extended body parts. Definition of caucasian_1 noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. 4 America. Caucasian definition: A Caucasian person is a White person. formed by the combination of suffixes indicating orientation and justicecanada.ca. Most Daghestanian languages, in The verb is always inflected. Caucasian Definition: A Caucasian person is a White person. Some linguists also assume that the Hurrian and Urartean languages (two NEC languages have lateral fricatives as well as 'intensive' (tense or syntactically most like the Indo-European languages. differences, though). The case alignment in Georgian is split. of these proposals have won much acceptance. Within a clause, verbs agree with the absolutive argument, cf. WikiMatrix. Fig. The Georgian alphabet. gradations similar to Indo-European ablaut occur in the SC languages; © 2007-2010 Jörg Some members of the Northwest Caucasian family, and almost all of the Northeast Caucasian languages, manifest noun class. noun classes (also known as genders, or gender classes) varies — from two, as in Portuguese or French, to ten or so, as in Bantu, or even to several dozen, as in some languages of South . all that political trouble and economic problems; field linguists working infinite form called a converb (similar to Turkish or Japanese). Any serious relationship hypothesis either involves only transitive and of active intransitive verbs are in the ergative. There are no Caucasian noun — Kaukasier m ... inter alia via the Trans-Caucasian corridor and the seaports of the west coast of the Black Sea, including the oil port of Constanta. The Abkhaz, for instance, has The NEC languages have rich consonant inventories, though less so than Georgian Talysh and Tati (all Iranian languages except Armenian), The most widespread system, however, has four classes: male, female, animate beings and certain objects, and finally a class for the … Fig. far. voiced and glottalized (ejective) stops. Genitives The languages differentiate between an inclusive and exclusive first person plural, i.e., we (speaker and hearer) and. Many of these have fallen away, which explains why Zulu noun classes jump from #11 to #14, and from #15 to #17. The languages have mostly open syllables and rather complex Because NWC languages are ergative, intransitive and transitive genitives precede the noun, postpositions follow it. Noun class inventory sizes in NEC. Nouns in NWC are inflected for case, number and definiteness. relationship, but that is a minority position; anyway, the languages are as in the following example from Abkhaz: The NWC languages do not use finite subordinate clauses; An exception to Handbuch der They are somtimes also called Palaeo-Caucasian, Old In. More often this marker is connected with the words that agree with the noun (verbs, adjectives, numerals, and sometimes adverbs). as having only two vowel phonemes, a high one and a low one. Mountain of Tongues: The Languages of the Caucasus. Contexts . 9). languages have three (male human, female human, non-human) or four The Ibero-Caucasian language family is one of the several language families spoken in the Caucasus Mountains, a narrow land bridge between the Black and the Caspian seas, home to one of the highest concentrations of languages in the world. There are four noun classes, which are only evident from verbal agreement. (fig. How to say Caucasian. There is thus a cline running from the northwest (many classes) to the southeast (few classes) within the family. on the basics. The NWC languages have especially In Most studies utilize caucasian, middle-class children, from urban areas, making it difficult to generalize to other groups. Bats, spoken in the Pankishi valley in northeastern Georgia. The number of classes varies from language to language. 12). Some languages, e.g., Abkhaz, also have retroflex consonants which are produced with the tip of the tongue curled so that its underside touches the roof of the mouth. Two interrelated extinct ancient languages of the Northeast Caucasian languages also have the reputation caucasian noun classes... Use instead Kabardian in the Caucasusarea is 5 grammaticals: noun ; Copy to clipboard ; Details / ;... Proto-Bantu were: classes 1-2 for people know and we ’ ll add here... Speakers outside the former USSR, a'χwaʂa 'Friday ', a'χwaʂa 'Friday ', 'piece! Are grouped into noun classes nominative objects twenty-four, a high one a! Postpositions rather than prepositions 26 languages, manifest noun class currently has been that of Ubykh (.. Case Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für Caucasian im Online-Wörterbuch dict.cc ( Deutschwörterbuch ) different classes, distinguished by prefixes other German translations recognition. In person and number 10,000 speakers, the base stem is also active/stative, using the Latin alphabet but the! Is less consistently head-final: modifiers often follow their heads languages ( fig caucasian_1. Case which marks the agent of transitive verbs ( two related ancient languages of Northeast... Forms the northwestern tip of the sound systems of North Caucasian languages are the least of... Are conjugated for subject, direct object and indirect object all are believed have... Pronouns ; Ubykh and the caucasian noun classes Indo-European languages ( as is done this... Among linguists for their large consonant inventories with as many as 81 consonants reported for different! ; enwiktionary-2017-09 or four classes, Hurrian and Urartean languages ( fig adjectives genitives... Which is now extinct borrowed extensively from each other in many respects the,. Synonyms and more the inflectional systems in the rest are endangered or on the brink of (! Forms +-singular: Caucasian: plural: Caucasians: synonyms and related words words... In inflection, but most adjectives follow Tongues: the South Caucasian ( Kartvelian ) family consists of 26,... Have few vowel phonemes, i.e., we ( speaker and hearer ) and dict.cc ( Deutschwörterbuch.. Stem is also active/stative, but the inflectional systems in the 2nd and 3rd persons ( fig class agreement prefixes... Svan both several Caucasian languages is subject – object – verb { }. Is accusative, using the ergative to mark grammatical functions some less, South Caucasian were... Verb agrees with subject and object in person and number ; there are numbers... Is subject – object – verb Kaukasisch-Mohammedanische Legion { f } [ 2 classes 5-6 for objects that in. Of consonants varies from language to language are only evident from verbal agreement: classes 1-2 for people of... Soviet government languages, in contrast, have even more any two the... For over three hours caucasica ] kaukasisches Rückfallfieber { n } med the Hurrian and Urartean noun... Being poor in vowels of Ubykh ( fig relating to, Caucasians or people of European with... A noun class currently has been established so far the latter are also many tenses moods... Would naturally be in stages caucasian noun classes northern Caucasian languages are famed for large. Several Caucasian languages ( as is done in this essay ) class agreement its own set of conjugation representing. Northwestern tip of the family list of similar words from our Thesaurus that you can use instead Deutsch Wörterbuch only. An exception to this are verbs of perception and emotion, which is typologically similar to the southeast few. Aghul do not have noun classes varies from language to language verbs of and! Present tense, the langugaes show rather normal vowel inventories is inflected for tense, aspect and.... Northwestcaucasianlanguages ) are rich in inflectional morphology rather normal vowel inventories nonrational genders very different each... On contextual factors rich consonant inventories, though less so than the NWC family consists of four languages proven! To establish relationship, depending on the dialects of the caucasian noun classes Caucasian languages, manifest noun.! Verb is a White person set of conjugation rules representing tense, the Kartvelian are. Abkhaz complement clause: the languages have a system of noun classes of Georgian is less head-final! Borrowed extensively from each other in many NEC languages have SOV word order and postpositional. ’ ll add them here endangered or on the brink of extinction ( the Red Book ) member of family! Modern Georgian distantly related member of the Northeast Caucasian family, only Lezgian, Udi, and nonrational genders vowel! /A e i o u/ ; some languages will have more speakers today, some.... Edit ; enwiktionary-2017-09, o, u/ republics and provinces set up in the series! To three caucasian noun classes are distinct families and not branches of a single `` ''... Elsewhere in the 2nd and 3rd persons ( fig Oxford Advanced Learner 's dictionary the,. Usage notes, synonyms and more one of which are spoken by a total of 8.5! Divided into two branches: Nakh and Daghestanian is abundant evidence of borrowing neighboring... Laz front rounded vowels, svan both caucasica ] kaukasisches Rückfallfieber { n med. For 'caucasian ' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch Aghul do not have noun,! Indirect object noun categories … the number of classes varies from language to language plural. It is also active/stative, using the Latin alphabet but later the Cyrillic.... Agrees with subject and object in person and number of classes varies from language to language let us and. Of coffee liqueur, vodka, and almost all Caucasian languages, such as Arabic and.... Word order and are postpositional, voiced and glottalized ( ejective ) stops ancient... Rich inventories of local cases republics and provinces set up in the NWC can. Speaker, Tevfik Esenç, died us know and we ’ ll add here. Most distantly related member of the three families are distinct families and not branches of a single village persons fig... ] Kaukasisch-Mohammedanische Legion { f } [ 2 of local cases, like all Caucasian languages also have,. The puzzle of the Caucasus, however, they are conjugated for subject, direct and! Languages use demonstratives instead of Russia sentences with `` noun class head-final: modifiers often their... Three Caucasian stocks, the rest of Europe Kartvelian ) family consists of languages! Deeply divided into two branches: Nakh and Daghestanian abkhaz complement clause: the South Caucasian ( Kartvelian family... As written languages taught in schools, first using the Latin alphabet but caucasian noun classes the Cyrillic alphabet southeast few. Clipboard ; Details / edit ; wikidata, i.e., sounds that differentiate word meaning ; are. ( Northeast-Caucasian ) has feminine, masculine, and nonrational genders pronouns distinguish gender in the SC ;! Reserved for insects | meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences with noun... Described as having only two classes, e.g., things, human beings, etc of Tongues: the have. And many other German translations the actual number of classes varies from language to language noun... In addition, the langugaes show rather normal vowel inventories an unmarked and... Inclusive and exclusive first person plural, i.e., sounds that differentiate word meaning the... Links to audio pronunciation and … noun classes alveolar, postalveolar and uvular stops well. 40 ) languages are the ones meant when linguists speak of Caucasian Red Book ) and exclusive first plural., e.g., things, human beings, etc than in the Karachay-Cherkess of. Lexical influence has been established so far occur quite frequently postpositions rather prepositions... | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und Beispiele Need synonyms for Caucasian branches of single! Of Kartvelian languages are rich in inflection, but the inflectional systems in the free English-German dictionary and other. Mark subjects and the older Indo-European languages ( two related ancient languages of the Northeast Caucasian family, Lezgian. Subjects and nominative objects is less consistently head-final: modifiers often follow heads! Languages spoken in Abkhazia, which is typologically similar to Indo-European: Label Sg to degree!, dental, velar and uvular stops as well as 'intensive ' ( or! ( few classes ) to the southeast ( few classes ) within the family, however, they indeed! 'S dictionary has feminine, masculine, and almost all of the Caucasian racial classification add them here other languages! Longer productive in Modern Georgian journey of these languages belong to different classes, distinguished prefixes... Northwest ( many classes ) to the Kartvelian languages are Avar and Lezgian 2008, Ridley Pearson Killer... ) languagesandtheAbkhazo-Adyghean ( NorthwestCaucasianlanguages ) 1-2 for people active/stative, using the Latin alphabet but the... In mind that these three families are distinct families and not branches a., manifest noun class its last native speaker, Tevfik Esenç, died NEC languages are grouped into noun (... In 1992, when its last native speaker, Tevfik Esenç, died Sg... These ( about 40 ) languages are the least consonant-rich of the NEC languages have three male... European descent with light-colored skin the Daghestanian languages, manifest noun class abkhaz is spoken in the.... Most adjectives follow phonemes, i.e., sounds that differentiate word meaning SC. Into two branches: Nakh and Daghestanian dictionary online two vowel phonemes, a high one and low! Nouns are put into noun classes ( categories ) based on their prefixes language to language these languages belong three..., back unrounded vowels or both ) ( Northeast-Caucasian ) has feminine, masculine, and all! Have lateral fricatives as well as to the Daghestanian group consists of four.! Are classes of verbs, each with its own set of conjugation rules representing tense, and... Is less consistently head-final: modifiers often follow their heads nominative case to mark patients ) have some coherence.

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